Developing the personal style of your garden, garden design fundamentals, proportions and sizes

Developing the personal style of your garden, garden design fundamentals, proportions and sizes

Every man to his own taste

Today, homeowners have at their disposal an amazing palette of colors, many improved hybrids growing in the region. Working on flower arrangements, they create original design solutions, beautiful views. They combine heat-loving and cold-resistant plants against the background of stones, benches, patios, hedges in accordance with their tastes, expressing their vision of paradise - a place of bliss, happiness and pleasure. Gardeners can choose to emulate one of the established styles or develop their own.

The landscape design of many gardens serves the main purpose - to emphasize, highlight the front of the house. It is here that there are bushes at the base of the foundation, a walking path leading from the road to the front door of the house, a young tree to decorate the place. Sometimes the front lawn is decorated with islets of flower beds, bushes, an unpaved carpet, or surrounded by ornamental plants around the perimeter. In remote areas there is a utility yard. There is a patio on the side of the house.

Some gardeners in the frontal part beautifully combine vegetable plantings with flower beds. They create a surprisingly inviting space while bringing vegetables closer to the kitchen.

Near the front of the house, it is possible to create a green room that will serve as a foyer for the house. From prying eyes and from noise, this area or the frontal part as a whole can be planted with bushes.

To give liveliness to the lawn, it is planted with ornamental grasses, among which perennials such as rudbeckia, asters, roses and others are planted. Thanks to the shape and texture of each plant, an almost year-round interest in the composition is achieved. Moreover, skillful selection of floral colors is also very important here.

The Basics of Good Design

Harmony and harmony, proportions and size, light and shadow, mass and place, texture, image, color - these are all aspects of a successful design. They are used in large gardens to create delightful views, harmonious - without repetition and boredom. A well-planned garden design is a design balanced between good mix and surprises.

Harmony and unification

In any style, a successful design, planting, sustainable ornamental combinations are designed to create unity in harmony with oneself and the environment. There are many ways to achieve a sense of harmony and unity in a landscape - this is art.

Growing healthy plants is one of the conditions for achieving the goal. If the plants are fighting for survival, languishing, it means that this place is inconvenient for them, they are in need of something. Therefore, before buying plants, study their requirements and choose those that will be comfortable in the chosen place.

When creating compositions, such groups of plants are selected that have similar requirements. Disharmony should not be allowed. For example, plant primroses, which prefer moisture, and stachis with gray leaves, as they prefer dry conditions, in one composition.

We must not forget about the natural requirements of the surrounding plants. For example, hosts adapt to both wet and dry conditions. They feel good both in partial shade and in perfect shade. And they usually look more decorative when grown next to ferns, astilbe and other acclimatized plants than with sun-loving roses and lilies in flower beds. Other disharmonious combinations are created with poppies, which naturally appear on dry mountain slopes, and rhododendrons, which naturally grow in the wild. While you may succeed in growing these combinations, the end result can be disharmonious.

The effect of unity and harmony is highly dependent on the formation of plants. In the formal garden, conifers are mainly used, which are given perfect geometric and predetermined symmetrical shapes.

In wooded gardens, plants are grown that are adapted to both the sun and the shade. They grow better if they are given the conditions of free, unlimited development. Bushes can be trimmed. The purpose of their cultivation is to create a form that will be in harmony with the environment. Tall trees over time can form a canopy, a vault.

Some shrubs are used to form tight-cut hedges. Others - forsythia, spiraea - and with natural growth are graceful. But sometimes they are cut off to form balls or boxes, and then they may look uninteresting, since their natural shape is destroyed. This is where harmony disappears.

So, the plants must be in harmony with each other, the whole garden must be in harmony with its surroundings. The garden fence should be one of a kind, unique. However, the garden must also have some connection with a specific place. For example, a garden with a panoramic view of an area overgrown with shrubs looks more harmonious than with a scene in the distance.

The unity with the surrounding area is achieved by including natural plants, stones in the design, imitating the prevailing forms and colors of the outer side of the garden.

Repetition and rhythm contribute to the creation of unity and harmony - the repetition of the color scheme or planting of different plants. For example, a row of pink begonias is planted along a pond and similar plantings are repeated in the curb on the lawn. Different plants can be used to create unity. For example, re-planting of stachis with gray fluffy leaves or ball-shaped plants. Images and shapes that are repeated throughout the garden can also provide an inviting rhythm that leads to unity.

A straight line of trees, tall trunks create vertical images. If the paths in the garden are curved, then this shape of the lines in the flower beds (beds) should be repeated. Some designers use the repetition of house shapes in the garden - stones reflect the squares that decorate the model of the house, cut trees to form squares, use square trellises on paths and walking paths.

To reflect the architectural feature of the home in the garden, plan for similar material in the landscape. If the house is brick-built, the walking path should also be brick. Home and garden will be one by using local natural building materials, rather than imported from afar.

When creating a landscape design, it is important that the presentation in the plan, personal goals and the final effect coincide - the alleys, carefully made flower beds and paths reflect the requirements of the owner. In the future, skillful cultivation of healthy plants, the creation of exotic images and the preservation of individuality are required. A private garden should always be the most individual, reflect the tastes of the owner, his goals.

Proportions and size

Objects in a garden appear large or small depending on the actual size of the garden environment. For example, large items such as a couch, sofa look huge in a small room.

In a sense, a garden is an ornamental outdoor space where some principles of size and proportion apply. A large garden needs a sense of the border to separate it from the surrounding space and horizon, to define it as a specially protected place. Large trees and bushes serve as a transitional zone from the garden to the enormous size of the surrounding world.

A common mistake, especially in small gardens, is the desire for numerous tiny details. As opposed to creating a garden with objects proportional to its size, try to start by incorporating vertical elements such as a tree, trellis, or hedge to limit ownership.

Reaching proportion

There are fast growing plants. They need annual pruning to get the right size, shape, and proportion in the garden.

Any garden, formal or informal, will be most successful if its individual elements are combined in eye-pleasing proportions, corresponding to each other in size, and give pleasure.

Since ancient times, gardeners have maintained a balance of width and height. And these days, designers use this method. It is recommended, for example, that the width of the curb is at least two-thirds of the structure behind it. If the curb is planted along a 1.8 m high fence, then the curb width should be 1.2 m, that is, the 2: 3 proportion proposed by ancient architects is respected.

Interestingly, these same proportions are observed when plants grow naturally between leaves and branches, and are also used when pruning trees.

Of course, there are no rules without exceptions. For example, plantings around a house, regardless of its height, should not obstruct windows. It is advisable to grow plants with a height equal to two-thirds of the height of the house against empty spaces of the wall of the house and between the windows.

For small gardens, the hedge should be low, as tall ones look depressing. If you need a place for privacy, then you should pay attention to the trellises, trellises.

When planning the landscape of the entire garden, the dimensions of all elements in the garden are applied to the plan, attractive proportions and their balance are provided.

To be continued

Tamara Barkhatova


Practical advice for arranging a summer cottage

It's summer outside, which means that you want to spend most of your free time outdoors, under the warm rays of the sun, among lush greenery and flowers. The area around the private house, as well as the courtyard, are exactly the places where both adults and children strive to leave their homes. The furnishings here certainly have to be attractive and functional.

Of course, you should not forget about the yard throughout the year, and when equipping the interior of the house, you need to take care of the space around it. Landscaping has its own characteristics, however, just like the interior, it is created taking into account functional zoning and compositional integrity.

Plants are undoubtedly the most important thing in creating landscape design. To select the necessary landscaping, several factors must be taken into account: scale (a harmonious combination of plants of different heights), proportionality (a balanced combination of low plants, shrubs and trees), functionality (a coordinated composition of ornamental and fruit plants), color (a combination of plants with different shades of foliage) ...

When choosing plants for your home, you need to remember about the beauty of the landscape, not only in summer, but also in other periods of the year. To do this, you should combine different seasonal types of shrubs and trees, and also not be afraid of "inclusions" of conifers, delighting with their freshness in winter.

When creating a general landscape concept, it is necessary to divide the site into different functional zones: a vegetable garden, an orchard, a recreation area, a children's area, a barbecue, a utility area. Separating them will help make your yard more organized and ergonomic.

It is imperative to think about the placement of the economic zone of the site, where the inventory and technical accessories will be stored. It is worth combining this zone with other buildings of the site so that in the future it does not turn into a collection of sheds and spontaneous structures.

Even such a simple structure as a greenhouse can have a very elegant architectural appearance. So it can be not only useful, but also aesthetically attractive and neat.

Placing a barbecue area on the site, it is worth coordinating its appearance with the design of the house, combining them into a kind of ensemble.In addition to the open part of the barbecue, small glass pavilions can be placed in the yard, which will not "load" the landscape.

A pond is a striking decoration of any landscape, be it a pool, a lake or a decorative slide, which will fill the courtyard space with comfort and tranquility. However, you need to remember that it is better to place reservoirs in an open part of the yard so that the autumn leaves of the trees do not spoil your mood.

In addition, the landscape can be supplemented with a variety of beautiful compositions and accessories. These can be small slides, flower beds, flower pots, lighting elements and much more.

The decoration of the landscape around the house is just as important as the interior design, because it serves as a kind of continuation of it. Do not forget about functionality, aesthetics and the right choice of plants - this will help create a real corner of paradise.

Author: Zaburannaya Svetlana


The choice of composition for painting walls in an apartment: photo examples and features of dyes

When choosing a dye for wall decoration, you should pay special attention to the varieties of compositions, taking into account their chemical structure. In this respect, there is a big difference between the materials, especially since not every version of the composition is suitable for residential premises.

For living rooms, it is necessary to choose only environmentally friendly paints, without impurities and a pungent odor

Features of oil paints: how to remove the composition from the walls, its advantages and disadvantages

Oil-based formulations oxidize and dry after application. As a result, a colored film-like coating is formed on the wall surface. The durability of such a finish is low, so there are no special questions about how to remove oil paint from the wall - you can use special tools or an ordinary spatula for this. Over time, under the influence of external factors, the coating becomes cracked, loses its appearance and peels off. In addition, the oil-based dye practically does not allow water vapor to pass through, which negatively affects the microclimate of the room.

The only advantage of the material is its low cost. Otherwise, this type of composition is completely unsuitable for the decoration of residential premises. It is worth noting that none of the existing varieties of paints will be able to qualitatively lie on top of the oil coating, so it must be completely removed before applying a new finish.

There are several ways how to remove oil-type paint from the walls in the bathroom:

  1. The mechanical method is laborious and time-consuming. A spatula and physical strength are used for removal.

Before painting the walls, remember that it is very difficult to remove some types of paint from the surface.

  1. Chemical method - a special substance is used that softens the dye. After processing, the coating can be easily removed with a spatula.
  2. Mechanized method - the composition is removed using a drill with a special attachment or grinder.
  3. Thermal method - the surface is heated with a building hair dryer, after which the softened coating is removed from the wall with a spatula.

Important! Before removing old paint from the wall, you need to make sure that there is no electrical wiring in the area to be treated with a hairdryer. In addition, the use of the thermal method on PVC or plastic surfaces is not allowed.

Characteristics of silicone paints for walls in an apartment

This category of dyes has high wear resistance, does not fade and abrasion. Due to its good vapor permeability, the coating does not violate the microclimate of the room.

An example of high-quality painting of walls with water-based matte paint in a dark shade

Advantages of silicone based paints:

  • the composition contains resins, due to which a continuous film coating is formed on the surface.In this case, the material has a porous structure that allows the penetration of air masses
  • resistance to moisture and water resistance
  • resistance to direct sunlight
  • excellent performance, allowing the use of the dye, both for interior and exterior wall decoration
  • unlike acrylic-based compounds, silicone paints do not soften from exposure to high temperatures, so the coating is less susceptible to changes during use
  • high degree of elasticity allows masking gaps of up to 2 mm during staining.

There are not so many disadvantages of the material, and the main one is the high price in comparison with other dyes. But this disadvantage is compensated by a long service life.

The color and texture of the walls should be in harmony with the overall design of the room.

The specifics of using magnetic wall paint

The use of magnetic marker paint for walls allows you to get an even coating that has the characteristics of a magnetic board. You can draw on it with colored markers and attach magnets.

With this composition, you can cover:

  • plywood sheets
  • concrete walls
  • board surfaces
  • drywall sheets
  • Fiberboard, chipboard, gypsum fiber board.

This dye contains iron particles, therefore, after application, the coating acquires magnetic properties. This allows magnets to be easily fixed to the wall. Experts recommend buying magnetic paint for walls in order to effectively decorate not only the interior of the living room, but also the premises of a restaurant, school, kindergarten, personal workplace, etc. The surface opened with magnetic paint can be pasted over with wallpaper. In this case, the magnetic properties of the coating are not lost.

Magnetic paint is often used to highlight one area in the kitchen, nursery or study.

Why is it profitable to buy marker paint for walls:

  1. The dye does not have an unpleasant odor.
  2. The composition does not contain toxic substances, so the dye can be safely used for wall decoration in educational and medical institutions.
  3. The coating is fireproof.
  4. The material is environmentally friendly and safe for animal and human health.
  5. The paint has high adhesive properties, which is easy to use.

Note! Magnetic marker dyes muffle harmful electromagnetic waves emitted by household appliances such as computers, televisions, and microwave ovens.


Various types: 1296 books - download in fb2, txt for android or read online

Audit of organizations of various types of activity. Auditor's Handbook

The book examines the features of the audit of organizations of various types of activities: industrial and trade organizations, leasing companies, construction organizations, catering organizations, hotels, travel agencies, educational institutions, publishing houses, pharmacies, pawnshops, private security companies, service centers, bookmakers.

Problem situations and controversial issues arising in the course of audits were analyzed, and practical recommendations were given to auditors. It is intended for auditors, accountants, undergraduate and postgraduate students of economic universities, as well as for those who are preparing for the qualification exam for an auditor's certificate, undergoing advanced training.

The book will also be useful for university teachers who train specialists in the specialty "Accounting, Analysis and Audit".

Sports orientation and selection for practicing various sports

The textbook reveals the basic concepts, criteria, stages and features of selection and orientation for practicing various sports. The questions on the development and measurement of physical qualities necessary for successful improvement in the chosen kind of sport are reflected.

The manual is intended for students of physical culture and pedagogical universities, studying in the specialty 034300. 62 "Physical culture". It can be useful for coaches and teachers of physical education in identifying sports abilities in children and adolescents for practicing various sports.

Gymnastic exercises for students with various health problems

The teaching aid prepared by the Department of Health-Improving Physical Culture of the UrFU presents various types of gymnastic exercises, tested in the process of physical education in special medical groups. The exercises are well systematized and can be recommended for drawing up health programs for students with disabilities.

for students with disabilities and physical education teachers.

Pedagogical technologies of educational work in special (correctional) schools of I and II types. Cha

The textbook examines the content and organization of educational work in special (correctional) schools of I and II types. The article presents innovative personality-socially oriented pedagogical technologies that contribute to the activation of speech, cognitive activity and the personal sphere of children with hearing impairments in various types of extracurricular activities.

The issues of planning educational work, organizing self-government, vocational guidance work, extracurricular reading, hearing and speech rehabilitation, social integration and other aspects of educational work are considered. The content of the textbook corresponds to the university standard in the specialty "Deaf-pedagogy".

The textbook is intended for students of defectological faculties of pedagogical universities, it can be useful for teachers working with children with hearing impairments.

Theory and methodology of the chosen sport 2nd ed., Rev. and add. Tutorial for open source software

The textbook shows general scientific and theoretical concepts and features of sports selection and sports orientation in various sports, gives definitions of the main types of sports training, highlights general provisions and illustrates the specificity of the training process.

A separate chapter is devoted to the peculiarities of the preparation and conduct of competitions in cross-country athletics, cross-country skiing and sports games. Test assignments and assignments for independent work will activate the cognitive and research activity of students.

Pedagogical technologies of educational work in special (correctional) schools of I and II types. Cha

The textbook examines the content and organization of educational work in special (correctional) schools of I and II types. The article presents innovative personality-socially oriented pedagogical technologies that contribute to the activation of speech, cognitive activity and the personal sphere of children with hearing impairments in various types of extracurricular activities.

The issues of planning educational work, organizing self-government, vocational guidance work, extracurricular reading, hearing and speech rehabilitation, social integration and other aspects of educational work are considered. The content of the textbook corresponds to the university standard in the specialty "Deaf-pedagogy".

The textbook is intended for students of defectological faculties of pedagogical universities, it can be useful for teachers working with children with hearing impairments.

Art. Kinds of art. 8th grade

This product is not an electronic form of a textbook (developed in accordance with the requirements of the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 1559 of 08.12.2014). This is an exact copy of the printed PDF tutorial. Does not contain multimedia and interactive objects.

The textbook continues the author's line of GI Danilova on art.He introduces the different types of art and their interaction. Contains a large illustrative material that gives a visual representation of the studied works of art. For each paragraph, headings are offered: "Questions and tasks for self-control", "Creative workshop" with Internet resources, "Topics of projects, presentations or messages".

At the end of the textbook there is a list of recommended literature. The textbook is written in accordance with the Federal State Standard of Basic General Education and the author's course program, approved by the Russian Academy of Education and the Russian Academy of Sciences, and is included in the Federal List.

Tests of blood, urine and other biological fluids of a person at different age periods

The publication contains the most commonly used for diagnostics indicators of blood, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid from the moment of birth to 70-80 years of age. Typical changes in components in various diseases for patients of different age groups are described.

The most frequently used tumor markers in diagnostics are shown. The reference limits of indicators for various types of oncology are given. Designed for doctors of various specialties: general medical profile (family doctors), pediatricians, geriatricians, dentists, medical students.

Theory and methodology of the chosen sport 2nd ed., Rev. and add. Textbook for universities

The textbook shows general scientific and theoretical concepts and features of sports selection and sports orientation in various sports, gives definitions of the main types of sports training, highlights general provisions and illustrates the specificity of the training process.

A separate chapter is devoted to the peculiarities of the preparation and conduct of competitions in cross-country athletics, cross-country skiing and sports games. Test assignments and assignments for independent work will activate the cognitive and research activity of students.

Geology 3rd ed., Trans. and add. Textbook for open source software

This textbook provides comprehensive knowledge of the discipline "Geology". It is written on the basis of the latest provisions of the theory of plate tectonics. A distinctive feature of the publication is its original structure - a modular block diagram of the subject presentation.

Each module contains educational and informational blocks (basic, additional, for in-depth study, etc.), control questions and tests, and some of them contain problems with solutions. At the same time, all these modules are interconnected: the study of subsequent material is impossible without knowledge of the previous one.

This approach will allow students to understand the course of complex geological processes and the formation of deposits of various types of minerals. Complies with the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education of the third generation.

For students of mining specialties of universities, and can also be used by students studying in the specialties "Applied Geology" and "Technologies of Geological Exploration".

Nutrition and diet for athletes

Achieving sports success is impossible without improving the body, which is closely related to proper nutrition. This publication provides advice on diet planning and diet planning for both amateur athletes and professionals who are physically challenged when playing a variety of sports.

The book also provides tips for choosing the most useful foods.

On the social and cultural rehabilitation of disabled people in the field of art (history, current state, trans.

The paper provides an analytical review of the establishment in Russia of institutions for the rehabilitation of people with various physical disabilities (deaf and hard of hearing, blind and visually impaired, suffering from defects of the musculoskeletal system) by means of art by means of their introduction to various types of artistic creativity.

The domestic historical and modern experience of educational institutions of a similar orientation is summarized. The achievements of the Russian Specialized Academy of Arts, the only higher educational institution of this profile in the world, are described in detail.Fundamental methodological provisions are formulated that determine the content and methods of educational, educational, creative-production and research activities of the Academy.

The problems that have to be solved in order to optimize the implementation of the most important task - to increase the effectiveness of rehabilitation of disabled people by means of art and mastery of artistic and creative professions. For this purpose, the need to create a unified federal educational center for the arts for children and youth suffering from physical ailments has been substantiated.

Brickwork. The most complete guide

• Materials. Concrete and mortar mixtures, their components and proportions, how to mix different types of bricks and blocks, their classification and use. • Foundations. How to place, compact and cure concrete when pouring simple foundations and foundations.

• Markup. Simple ways of transferring elevations and marking the position of wall lines on a construction site. • Bricklaying. Tools step-by-step instructions for all the basic techniques for laying bricks, various types of dressings, joint treatment and hollow walls.

• Boundary walls. Principles for the design of free-standing walls, including the use of pilasters, ridges and crowning elements. • Decorative masonry. Simple techniques for improving the decorative design of brickwork. • Defects and their correction.

Typical defects in brickwork and how to fix them.

A knife is the earliest type of weapon; it has always been close to a person. Each nation at different times had its own knives, which differed from others not only in shape, but also in material. And now completely different people of different professions are interested in knives - collectors, hunters, athletes, simply connoisseurs of beautiful weapons, professionals and amateurs.

In our album you will find a detailed description of various types of knives, learn about the history of their origin and use, the manufacturer, and also the cost. In addition, each piece of edged weapons is accompanied by a colorful illustration.

Fracture Mechanics Models and Criteria

The monograph sets out modern ideas about the models and criteria of the physics and mechanics of damage and fracture of solids in the presence of cracks under the influence of various types of loading, as well as the principles of analysis and justification of the safety and survivability of technical systems in severely damaged states.

Within the framework of fatigue and contact fracture mechanics, dynamic, experimental and computational fracture mechanics, mechanics of creep cracks and the action of corrosive media, the features of models and criteria of physics and mechanics of cracks in solids are considered.

The use of the main theoretical provisions and criteria of fracture mechanics is illustrated by practical examples. For senior students, masters and graduate students of technical universities, as well as scientific and engineering workers interested in the problems of strength and destruction, safety, survivability and resource of technical systems.

Recommended for publication by the Academic Council of the Institute of Mechanical Engineering. AA Blagonravov of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the problem "Reliability, resource and safety of technical systems."

Opening a car workshop: A Practical Guide

The book presents the entrepreneurial aspects of organizing the business of microenterprises - workshops for various types of car service. It briefly tells about some types of work in order to familiarize entrepreneurs and performers with them for thinking, assessing their capabilities and choosing a type of activity.

It is intended for practical assistance to individual entrepreneurs, motorists-practitioners.

Statement of tasks for simulation of tactical defensive competitive actions

The competitive behavior of business entities and other economic agents consists of a set of actions called competitive. Competitive are purposeful, pragmatically oriented actions of business entities directed against various representatives of their environment to ensure the highest consumer, functional and social assessments for themselves, to create, maintain and develop competitive advantages, as well as to ensure the best competitive position.

The market and business in countries with market-oriented economies are deeply ordered things. And competition is also an orderly phenomenon. The set of competitive actions that form the system of competitive behavior of professional business entities includes various types, directions and methods of rivalry.

In addition to the mathematical one, the apparatus of imitation modeling can be successfully used as a tool for studying the processes of competitive behavior. Actor modeling, which appeared in the process of development of modeling systems, is especially effective for this subject area.

Unlike standard transaction-oriented systems, in such modeling systems the actor is not just a passive dynamic unit moving through the nodes of the model, but plays the role of an active "participant in events", changing, if necessary, both its parameters and the state of the nodes themselves, and the entire model as a whole.

For creating models, there are corresponding packages of simulators. In this case, the most suitable software packages are Pilgrim and AnyLogic. The least suitable is such a well-known and widespread package as GPSS World, since it is focused on modeling only discrete processes associated with technologies and production, its concept does not include spatial and financial imitation.

In the course of acquaintance with existing models, it often turns out that they do not quite correctly use the very concept of "competition". Earlier, on the pages of the journal, the author presented the formulation of tasks for tactical modeling of offensive competitive actions.

This article is devoted to the consideration of protective methods of competitive behavior of business entities.

Vladimir Bekhterev was the first to invade the holy of holies of man - his consciousness. And he was able not only to heal from the most serious diseases, but also to control people with the help of suggestion and hypnosis. He conducted hundreds of unique hypnosis experiments, after which people miraculously revived and got rid of their addictions: alcoholism, smoking, drug addiction.

This book reveals the essence of suggestion as a mental phenomenon, the mechanisms of the emergence of mental epidemics and the role of various types of suggestion in their origin and spread during crisis situations in society.

Renovation and layout of the apartment

In order for an apartment to be comfortable, safe and beautiful, it needs systematic maintenance and repair, its internal space should be properly organized, and the interior should be decorated in accordance with the basic rules for the design of residential premises. This book is addressed to people planning to carry out various types of repairs on their own.

A description of the repair work and methods of their implementation is given, it tells about the necessary materials, tools, devices. The book is designed for a wide range of readers who want to create an original residential interior, to realize their ideas and dreams for arranging a hearth with maximum accuracy.

Spanish Colloquial Grammar with Exercises 3rd ed., Rev. and add. Tank tutorial

If you have already started to learn Spanish, then this book is simply necessary for you the 3rd edition.It will help you to master the most difficult grammatical topics of the Spanish language in a relaxed and playful way: the coordination of indicative tenses, the imperative and subjunctive moods, the future simple and complex in the meaning of the hypothesis, the conditional mood and conditional sentences, the construction of "accusative with infinitive"

For each topic, you will find a short grammar reference, exercises on various types of transformations and text material consisting of dialogues, proverbs, sayings, jokes and small poems. Exercises are performed according to the data as a sample models, and they can be done both in the laboratories of oral speech or in the class with the voice of the teacher, and independently (at the end of the book there are keys by which you can check yourself).

In the second part of the manual, you will find excerpts from works by Spanish and Latin American authors. To facilitate understanding, each text is provided with a concise Spanish-Russian dictionary. By the illustrations of humorous content, you yourself will be able to evaluate your knowledge: after all, without knowledge of the language, it is impossible to understand humor.

More than 25 years have passed since this book was first published. During this time, many generations of students from the country's leading universities have learned Spanish and are successfully working, remembering the author with gratitude.

The securities market in questions and answers. Tutorial

The textbook is written in accordance with the requirements of the state educational standard for the specialty "Finance and Credit". The material provides a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of the securities market, its structure and participants. The book provides a description of various types of securities, deals with the issue and circulation of securities, methods for calculating stock indices, and the specifics of investing in securities.

A separate section of the book is devoted to the creation and functioning of the securities market in the Russian Federation. For students and teachers of universities, scientists and practitioners specializing in finance and the stock market.

Weapons and military armor of Europe. From ancient times to the end of the Middle Ages

The large-scale work of Ewart Oakeshott, a recognized specialist in the history of weapons and an expert of world importance, reflects a huge historical period - from the middle of the Bronze Age, covering the era of the Great Nations Migration, the times of the Vikings, chivalry up to the beginning of the Renaissance.

Along with the description of many types of weapons, special attention is paid to the analysis of the development and improvement of the classic knight's sword, the peculiarities of its manufacture, as well as the classification of blades, spears, cross guards and pommels. In addition, Oakeshott recreates the era of feudalism in detail, considering the evolution of military armor and varieties of medieval estates.

The book is addressed not only to specialists, but also to those who would like to get acquainted with the most interesting hypotheses about the origin and development of various types of weapons. The publication is supplied with a large number of illustrations, exact copies from rare manuscripts made by the author's hand.

Popular sports history

The author of this publication examines the history of physical culture, its influence on modern society and the formation of a person's appearance. In addition, the book describes various sports and tells about the most famous people in this field.

Thiamine triphosphate. A new look at the non-coenzyme function of vitamin B1

The monograph examines modern concepts of the metabolism and functions of vitamin B1 (thiamine). Information on the systems of thiamine transport into cells of various types of organisms, enzymes of synthesis and degradation of its phosphorus esters, as well as the molecular basis of hereditary thiamine-dependent pathologies are presented.

Based on the results of our own research, a concept was formulated about the fundamental biological role of thiamine triphosphate associated with the adaptation of the cell to stress. The discovery of a new thiamine derivative - adenylated thiamine triphosphate - and an enzyme of its biosynthesis is described.

Addressed to researchers, teachers and university students, as well as everyone interested in the modern methodology of molecular biological research.

Fast Italian. Self-study guide for those who do not know anything

This tutorial presents a revolutionary methodology for teaching a foreign language. The author clearly explains the rules and features of the Italian language. A special way of presenting the material was used, which takes into account the psychological characteristics of mastering a foreign language and activates various types of memory.

A huge number of exercises presented in the book will help you to better consolidate the material you have mastered, and a detailed analysis of examples will certainly help you learn Italian quickly and easily. The book is intended for the widest range of readers.

Modeling and creation of drawings in the AutoCAD system

The tutorial introduces the capabilities of computer graphics in the design of spatial objects and contains all the necessary information about polygonal and solid three-dimensional modeling in the graphics system AutoCAD. The complex shape model of a spatial object (bearing cover) is performed in stages from individual elements, limited by surfaces of various types.

The issue of automated creation of images (views and sections) on orthogonal and axonometric drawings of a part is considered on the basis of its solid model. The application of a number of functions that increase the efficiency of work in an automated graphical environment is described.

A realistic representation of the object is considered. The book contains a large number of drawings and illustrations. The material of the manual is presented consistently in a simple, accessible form, convenient for independent work. For students and teachers of universities, as well as designers working with AutoCAD.

Varshavskoe highway - at any cost. The tragedy of Zaitseva Mountain. 1942-1943

The book of Kaluga historians and search engines A. Ilyushechkin and M. Mosyagin is devoted to one of the tragic pages of the Great Patriotic War - a fierce struggle for control over the Varshavskoe highway, the focus of which fell on the territory of several heights and villages in the Baryatinsky district of the Kaluga region, adjacent to this most important transport artery ...

The battle for Zaitseva Gora - such a collective name was given to the battles - lasted more than a year, from February 1942 to March 1943. The enemy in the area of ​​Zaitseva Gora had a developed network of strongholds saturated with various types of weapons, numerous engineering structures.

From commanding heights, the enemy controlled the terrain for tens of kilometers. It was in the battles for Zaitsev Mountain that many thousands of soldiers and commanders of the Red Army were killed. The book is written on rich archival and memoir material. Designed for historians, university professors, students and anyone interested in the history of the Great Patriotic War.

Series “On the front line. The Truth About War ”has been published since 2006.

Business lady in the big city

Having carefully studied hundreds of the most successful careers of women in various types of business, the author managed to penetrate the veil of some of the secrets and secrets inherent in the most successful women in business. It is about these secrets, as well as about the technology of transforming from Cinderella into a successful business woman, that is told on the pages of this book.

Fundamentals of Physical Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy

The textbook provides a clinical and physiological substantiation of the therapeutic effect of physical exercises as a component of the system of physical rehabilitation and examines various types of physiotherapy.The general requirements for the use of physical exercises and physiotherapeutic procedures and the methods of their implementation for all the main forms of pathological conditions in adults and children are stated: with injuries and orthopedic problems, with diseases of internal organs, diseases of the central nervous system, etc.

Designed for students studying the discipline "Physical Rehabilitation".

Learn to draw cars and houses

This book will not only help your little one learn how to draw cars and houses, but also introduce them to different types of cars and houses.

The book introduces the reader to various types of domestic animals and poultry, tells about the rules for breeding and caring for them, about the symptoms of the most common diseases and measures to prevent them. Gardeners and gardeners will also find in this book information on how to select, place and grow a variety of fruit and vegetable crops.

It is intended for persons who keep animals and poultry in a collective farm or for personal use, having a garden and a vegetable garden.

Foundations of Logic 4th ed., Trans. and add. Textbook and workshop for open source software

The publication differs in the content of the issues under consideration, the structure and organization of the material. It is focused on the inclusion of theoretical questions on argumentation, logic in the practice of legal activity, but at the same time covers the main sections of traditional and modern logic and theory of argumentation in relation to various types of conversations that take place in this area of ​​human life.

At the end of each chapter, structural and logical diagrams are offered for better comprehension and consolidation of the learned material in memory, as well as questions and tasks for monitoring and developing students' practical skills and abilities.

The sculptures presented in the manual are made by the author with his own hands and decorate his summer cottage and the facade of the house. This craft will not disregard summer residents, who, with minimal financial costs, can also make similar figures with their own hands, this is especially true for residents of villages far from the city.

The manual will be useful for various types of circles in schools and art houses.

How to organize a distance business?

The book provides answers to frequently asked questions from aspiring entrepreneurs. The materials of the book will allow you to organize your remote work step by step. Various types of business are considered here - both with financial investments and without them. Remote business presupposes a number of features: organization of work, accounting and tax accounting, specifics of concluding contracts, as well as advertising of this type of activity.

Simple recommendations will help not only organize a remote business for additional profit, but also make your enterprise highly profitable. The book is addressed to a wide range of readers.

Imagine, many years ago, unusual animals walked on our planet - today you will not see such, which were called dinosaurs. Then something suddenly happened and they died out. This book in an accessible form will share with you discoveries and hypotheses regarding the lifestyle and extinction of dinosaurs.

Here are various types of these ancient dinosaurs: terrestrial, waterfowl and even flying. We are sure that it is with our book that you will learn all the most interesting about the world of dinosaurs, because on the pages of the publication there are many visual illustrations, often with detailed explanations.

Do you want to quickly find out everything about everything? Then do not hesitate: rather sit down for reading to gain not only new knowledge, but also great pleasure from an exciting journey into the long-disappeared world of dinosaurs. For primary school age.

Stocks and bods market. 2nd edition

The textbook is the second revised and supplemented edition, which is written in accordance with the requirements of the State Educational Standard for the specialty "Finance and Credit". The material provides a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of the securities market, its structure and participants.

The book provides a description of various types of securities used in domestic and foreign practice. The issues of the issue and circulation of securities, the principles of organization and functioning of the stock exchange, the procedure for admitting securities to the exchange, types of transactions with securities, methods of calculating stock indices, the peculiarities of investing in securities and the principles of forming a portfolio of securities.

A separate section of the book is devoted to the creation and functioning of the securities market in the Russian Federation. For students and teachers of economic universities, researchers and practitioners specializing in finance and the stock market.

Considered: modern global environmental and regional environmental and economic problems, natural resources and their rational use; negative impact on the environment of chemical, petrochemical and other industries; environmental legislation in the federal and regional aspects; environmental measures necessary to reduce the impact and eliminate harmful emissions and discharges into the environment is an economic mechanism for rationalizing nature management and stimulating the environmental protection of industrial enterprises; standardization, environmental certification, environmental labels, international environmental cooperation.

Methods for assessing the economic damage caused to the national economy by environmental pollution, methods for calculating payments for various types of negative impact on the environment and calculating the economic efficiency of environmental protection measures.

Almost every chapter includes regional materials on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan. All sections are accompanied by control questions and tasks.

Original leather goods with your own hands. Manufacturing secrets

This book will reveal to you the secrets of making various leather goods, which you can easily and inexpensively make with your own hands. You will learn about different types of skin and how to care for it. Thanks to the author's simple and accessible recommendations, illustrated drawings, drawings and visual diagrams, you will quickly master the basic techniques of working with leather.

You will become a true professional in the manufacture of decorative items, fashion jewelry and original clothing details.

Tax disputes. Journal of Tax Security and Risk Reduction. No. 06/2014

Tax Disputes is a monthly magazine for tax specialists, chief accountants, financiers, lawyers. The key focus of the journal is to ensure tax security by assessing and reducing tax risks. The magazine will help you keep abreast of the latest changes in tax legislation, timely learn about important innovations and, with the help of experts, assess their implications for the company.

"Tax disputes" make it possible to track landmark court decisions and, on this basis, take into account the prospects of a particular dispute with the tax authorities. Assistance in making decisions on controversial and extraordinary situations related to imperfection of tax legislation and the requirements of territorial tax authorities.

Experts will tell you how to protect your rights. You will be able to optimize tax accounting using the experience of experts and colleagues, and only in legal ways.In this issue: Tax policy from a business point of view Interview with Mikhail Orlov, partner, head of corporate tax practice at KPMG in Russia and the CIS.

However, this can be avoided by keeping separate accounting records. The Russian Ministry of Finance explained under what conditions different types of losses affect controllability. We analyze the position of financiers and find out how to apply it in practice "Blood" insurance premiums Do I need to pay insurance premiums from the amount of payments to donors for the days of donating blood? It would seem that these payments are not related to labor relations.

But the Presidium of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation has its own view of resolving this issue Blitz reviews of court decisions A brief overview of recent decisions of federal arbitration courts. We pay the main attention to the argument that allowed one or the other side to win. Arbitration alternatives Review of issues of law enforcement practice, to which the courts do not yet give an unambiguous answer.

Expert advice will help navigate conflicting findings and much more.

Alexander Kashin visiting "Take it and do it"

The guest of the program is Alexander Kashin, entrepreneur, owner of EGO-Holding, one of the largest holding structures in the North-West region of Russia. The holding includes more than 25 enterprises of various types of activity. The main types of business of the company are structured in four areas: finance, industry, business and private services, sports.

Alexander built his empire from scratch. And today he will share his views and principles of doing business, which, as his experience shows, produce concrete, measurable results. In the podcast: - In what situations is it possible to start a business from scratch. - About the role of education in the business environment.

- About loans and investors. - About the competition of the European market. - On the role of politics in entrepreneurship.

1200 of the most important Italian words in pictures. For beginners

The book includes 1200 commonly used words of the modern Italian language (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, pronouns). A picture, transcription, translation into Russian, written reproduction of a word serve to activate various types of memory and, ultimately, allow you to quickly memorize the necessary vocabulary.

The test after every 100 words provides self-control: if you can do it, then congratulate yourself on your success. At the end of the book, the reader will find the Index of Words and the page number on which this word is represented.

Surprise cakes. Chocolate, cream, coffee, jelly, nut, fruit

Surprise cakes will make your holiday unforgettable! Their fragrant middle will give cut flowers from curd dough, a rainbow heart with lime zest, cute chocolate cats, blackberry ombre and even a declaration of love! The cakes are easy to prepare. Spectacular techniques for working with various types of dough, fillers from rind, nuts, pieces of jelly and chocolate drops, fillings and special stencils turn an ordinary recipe into a culinary masterpiece.

Fundamentals of life safety. Answers to exam tickets

This manual provides answers to the questions proposed by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation for exams in the course "Fundamentals of Life Safety". The questions offered in the exam tickets take into account the basic knowledge gained by students in grades 5-9 of a general education school, and are aimed at determining the degree of assimilation and awareness by graduates of the basic concepts of dangerous and emergency situations, the rules of safe behavior in them, the basics of a healthy lifestyle and on the methods of providing first aid for various types of injuries.

How the idea of ​​inclusive education is perceived in Russia

The work analyzes the factors influencing the position of people in relation to inclusive education - the practice of joint education of children with disabilities and ordinary children. Based on the data of a pilot survey conducted in four Russian regions and covering both the general population and people with three different types of disabilities, it is shown that, in general, people with different types of disabilities perceive the idea of ​​inclusive education differently.

The most important factors were the level of education and personal educational experience. The fact of participation of respondents in public organizations of people with disabilities, as well as the geographical factor, turned out to be significant, at the same time, such parameters as gender, presence of children and family size do not affect the attitude towards inclusive education.

Finite element method in dynamic problems of material strength

A finite element method (FEM) and a technique for its application in dynamic calculations of rod systems for various types of deformations (tension-compression, torsion, bending), as well as for complex types of loading of rods: tension-compression with torsion, oblique bending, oblique bending in combined with tension-compression, oblique bending with tension-compression and torsion.

The FEM-based solution of a large number of dynamic problems of material resistance is considered in detail. Calculated tasks for an independent solution are given. The book is intended for students studying the disciplines "Resistance of Materials" and "Mechanics of Materials and Structures".

It can also be useful for engineers of mechanical engineering and thermal power specialties.

Joint diseases are widespread today. Osteochondrosis, various types of arthritis, arthrosis, joint diseases associated with metabolic disorders, such as gout, are especially common. In this book, you will find a brief description of the most common joint diseases, as well as recommendations for getting rid of this ailment.

You will get acquainted with herbal medicine and recipes from medicinal plants used in the treatment of joint diseases. You will also learn about auxiliary methods of treating joint diseases, in particular, such as remedial gymnastics. The book contains sets of exercises for diseases of the articular system.

These methods will give you the opportunity to normalize the work of the joints, to achieve the feeling that you can alleviate your illness. For a wide range of readers.

The manual is based on popular science texts, most of which are revised and adapted material from the educational dictionary-reference book "Great Philosophers" and the publication "Great Thinkers of the West". The manual contains 7 topics, presented by thematic blocks, each of which contains at least two texts.

The texts are accompanied by pre-text and post-text tasks aimed at checking the assimilation of the lexical minimum on the topic and content of the texts. Working with texts involves the formation of knowledge, skills and abilities in various types of reading, as well as speaking, writing.

Listening texts are collected in a separate block. The manual is intended for students who speak Russian as a foreign language at the TRKI-1 (B1) level and study the general educational discipline "Philosophy". It is part of the series "We Read Specialty Texts", which is intended for students studying Russian at the main stage of education.

Advocacy 3rd ed., Trans. and add. Study Guide for Applied Bachelor's Degree

This publication corresponds to the modern structure and content of the programs of the course "Advocacy in the Russian Federation". In a concise and laconic form, the authors set out all the main topics.The basic concepts of advocacy and the legal profession, its tasks, place and role in modern society, the relationship between the state and the legal profession, legal foundations and organizational forms of lawyers' activities, their rights and obligations are revealed.

In a generalized form, the features of the participation of a lawyer in various types of legal proceedings - in constitutional, civil, criminal, administrative and arbitration are presented.

Garden violets. 130 best species and varieties

Violet, viola, pansies, ivan-da-marya, brothers, tricolor, half-color, scrofula - all these names bear some of the most welcoming and cute flowers that can be found from early spring to late autumn in summer cottages and city flower beds, on balconies and containers near buildings.

These amazing plants can be annuals, biennials or perennials when cultivated in various ways. Violets are unpretentious, bloom almost all season and are very diverse in color, shape, size. The book provides a complete list of species and varieties of garden violets, describes simple, but necessary techniques for care and reproduction.

About sociology in english. About Sociology: Workshop in English

The practice is compiled on the basis of original American sources and promotes the assimilation and consolidation of vocabulary, the development of various types of reading and understanding of the original literature in the specialty, as well as the development of oral speech skills in situations of professional communication.

For students, graduate students, researchers.

Microsoft Word for student

The book is a guide to using Microsoft Word in preparing documents of various types. Considered both the creation of the simplest documents (conference abstracts, annotations, statements, etc.), and documents containing various objects (graphic objects, fields, tables, etc.).

etc.). Describes the creation of large-volume documents with structural and external markup, tables of contents, alphabetical indexes and other elements (for example, coursework, diploma or dissertation work). The questions of preparation of Web-pages and integration of Microsoft Word with other applications of the Microsoft Office package are outlined.

The book contains more than 50 disassembled examples and over 150 tasks for self-fulfillment.

Proof in civil procedure 4th ed., Trans. and add. Study guide for bachelor's degree

The book provides a summary analysis of the specifics of proof in various types of civil procedure, and also provides a general approach to the problems of proof in the performance of certain procedural actions. For the first time, it is proposed to look at evidence and proof not only as a general institution of civil procedure with the disclosure of the subject of evidence, but also as an intersectoral institution of civil procedural law, covering all stages and types of civil procedure, through the prism of judicial practice.

This is the first manual in Russia on proof and evidence within the framework of the activities of courts of general jurisdiction for the consideration and resolution of civil cases from the moment of initiation of a case until the execution of court orders. Practicing lawyers will be interested in the applied aspect of this manual, focusing on law enforcement problems.

A great gift for your beloved daughter

Girls grow up and gradually enter adulthood. And whatever profession they choose in the future, first of all they will have to become the mistress of the house. After all, family well-being and home comfort will depend on them, which is sometimes achieved with rather routine things - cleaning, washing, cooking ... And as you know, it is especially unpleasant for us to do something that does not work out at all or is given with difficulty.

Our book will help you convince girls that boring activities do not exist in principle.It will allow you to gain the necessary skills in home economics - whether it is cooking breakfast or general cleaning, removing stains from clothes or fixing them, caring for house plants or decorating the interior.

The attitude to the labor process itself is important, because there are absolutely no non-creative activities. A job done well and quickly not only gives pleasure in itself, but also leaves more time for leisure, various types of which are also offered in our publication - drawing up flower arrangements and panels, beading and playing with a pet, cycling and tennis.

A separate chapter is devoted to self-care, those measures that will help to emphasize and preserve beauty. We hope every girl will appreciate our advice.

Big encyclopedia of massage professor Vasichkin

The book describes in detail the techniques and principles of different types of massage, recommendations are given and contraindications for use in each specific case are indicated. Much attention is paid to such techniques of various types of massage as classic, periosteal, connective tissue, acupressure.

The book is richly illustrated, which makes the material accessible and easy to study. Designed for massage therapists, doctors, sports coaches, as well as for anyone interested in this topic.

Types of miniature trees for your garden

Bonsai is a miniature replica of a small part of nature. The technology of growing a miniature tree from seeds, as well as propagation by cuttings, is quite simple. However, there are many different procedures that are very important for creating miniature instances.

The choice of a tree for the formation of bonsai is also important in creating the garden of your dreams.

Effective feeding for a miracle harvest

This book is intended for summer residents, gardeners and gardeners who want to get a rich harvest of fruits with a long shelf life from their site. On its pages you will get acquainted with various types of fertilizers, methods of harvesting them and recommendations for purchasing, the procedure for applying to the soil, methods of feeding.

You will learn how to determine what a particular plant is missing and how to reanimate the affected specimens, and you will also learn how timely feeding affects the quality of the crop and its shelf life. Act rationally and get a harvest that will delight you!

Theory of mechanisms and machines 3rd ed., Trans. and add. Applied Bachelor's textbook and workshop

The textbook sets out the foundations of the theory of mechanisms and machines, studies the properties of certain types of mechanisms that are widely used in a variety of machines, devices and devices. The textbook reflects modern scientific and practical knowledge used in solving problems necessary for the design of various types of technical means.

Examples, control questions and assignments included in the textbook allow you to master the relevant skills and abilities.

Geology 3rd ed. Textbook for bachelors

This textbook provides comprehensive knowledge of the discipline "Geology". It is written on the basis of the latest provisions of the theory of plate tectonics. A distinctive feature of the publication is its original structure - a modular block diagram of the subject presentation.

Each module contains educational and informational blocks (basic, additional, for in-depth study, etc.), control questions and tests, and some of them contain problems with solutions. At the same time, all these modules are interconnected: the study of subsequent material is impossible without knowledge of the previous one.

This approach will allow students to understand the course of complex geological processes and the formation of deposits of various types of minerals. Complies with the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education of the third generation.

For students of mining specialties of universities, and can also be used by students studying in the specialties "Applied Geology" and "Technologies of Geological Exploration".

Psychology and pedagogy of the game. Academic Baccalaureate Textbook and Workshop

Before you is the first Russian textbook, which fully and meaningfully presents the theoretical foundations and practical aspects of children's play. Various approaches to understanding the game are presented in a popular form: traditional and modern, psychological and pedagogical, domestic and foreign.

The features of various types of play and their importance for the development of the child are shown. The book contains a large number of games: plot, didactic, games with rules, etc. The problem of computer games for preschoolers is considered separately. The book was written by qualified experts in the field of children's play.

It is not only a good modern textbook, but also a practical guide to organizing the game. The authors demonstrate in an accessible and convincing way the advantages of free play over play-based training lessons and technologies.

Apocalypse in Russian poetry

“There is no separation. Life is one. The emergence of many things is just an illusion. No matter what partitions we establish between the phenomena of the world, these partitions are insubstantial and directly inconceivable. They are created by different types of relations of something single to itself.

Plurality arises as a mediation of unity, as a difference in the folds of the same fabric, all the same decorated. The veil is torn from the world - and these factories, people, plants will disappear, the world will disappear like a sleeping beauty, wake up to wholeness, shaking a pearl kokoshnik face, dawn flare up eyes, like azure lanita, like snow clouds of a mouth - fire.

Will get up - the beauty will laugh. The black clouds that have curtained it will be pierced by its rays, they will flare up with fire and blood: the outline of a dragon will appear on them: here the defeated red dragon will be scattered among the clear sky ... ”.

Commerce and trade technology

In the textbook, taking into account modern requirements, topical issues of commerce and trade technology are highlighted: the basics of building the process of commodity circulation, the essence and content of commercial activity in trade, commercial activity in wholesale purchases and sale of goods, organization and technology of trade processes at wholesale and retail trade enterprises.

Special chapters of the textbook are devoted to packaging operations in trade, the organization of the transportation of goods by various modes of transport, as well as state regulation of trade and the rules for the sale of goods. For students of higher educational institutions, managers and specialists of commercial structures, novice managers and businessmen.

Healing massage techniques. A complex approach

The book describes in detail the techniques and principles of segmental massage, recommendations for its dosage are given and contraindications for use in each specific case are indicated. Much attention is paid to such techniques of various types of massage as classic, periosteal, connective tissue, acupressure.

The book is richly illustrated, which makes the material accessible and easy to study. It is intended for massage therapists, doctors, sports trainers, as well as for anyone interested in this topic.

Suggestion and its role in public life

In the book "Suggestion and its role in public life" the outstanding Russian psychiatrist, psychologist and physiologist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev reveals the essence of the mental phenomenon of suggestion. The author dwells in detail on the mechanisms of occurrence of various types of mental epidemics, such as mass illusions and hallucinations, mass hysteria and mass panic, explains the behavior of demoniacs and sorcerers, sectarians and religious fanatics.

Speaking about the possibilities of influencing people inspired by the same idea, describing cases of manipulation by a frenzied crowd during mass gatherings, Bekhterev emphasizes the enormous importance of suggestion in society, especially during periods of crisis.

According to the scientist, suggestion is the social factor that plays an important role in the life and history of entire nations.

This book is the easiest and most accessible tutorial on the basics of sewing and sewing. In it you will find answers to all the questions that beginner dressmakers have in the process of work. The book discusses in detail the following issues: various types of fabrics and features of working with them, cutting and sewing clothes, taking measurements and building basic patterns, basic rules for cutting fabrics, basic sewing techniques, main types of seams, sewing sequence of a product, basic landing defects and ways to eliminate them, expansion and contraction of clothing.

Provides basic recommendations for basic models for women and men. The most detailed attention is paid to the consideration of how to properly cut and sew clothes for children - boys and girls of all ages. This is an indispensable book for moms who want their baby to be the most beautiful and stylish and unlike anyone else!

Criminal law. Special part in 2 volumes. Volume 1 4th ed., Trans. and add. Academic Bachelor Textbook

The textbook was prepared on the basis of the current Russian legislation with an analysis of the latest changes and additions. The book will help students to quickly and effectively study the system of the Special Part of Criminal Law, the content of typical qualifying signs and signs of specific offenses, basic techniques and rules for qualifying crimes, as well as the regulatory framework governing liability for various types of crimes.

For a better perception of the essence of the questions presented, the material of the textbook is structured in detail, text highlights are used, and the style of presentation chosen by the authors makes this textbook understandable and useful for readers. To test knowledge, after each chapter there are questions and tasks for self-control.

The history of social work. Textbook

The textbook describes the history of the formation, development and modernization of various types of assistance to the population. A systematic understanding of the peculiarities of social work in Russia and in the world is being formed. The genesis of state and non-state forms of protection of various categories of those in need is investigated, historical trends and formational features of the development of social work are identified and substantiated. The textbook meets the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of Higher Professional Education of the third generation in the direction of training "Social Work".

Pies and More ... 2 is 7 amazing baking chapters. Here you will learn how to make crunchy meringues that melt in your mouth, how to work with different types of dough, recipes for baking that does not require the use of wheat flour, and ideas for making incredible chocolate desserts.

And if you cook with your children, then the chapter “It Can't Be Easier” is just for this case! Let homemade cakes become a faithful companion to all your feasts!

Practical course on cutting and sewing

The basics of cutting and sewing various types of clothing are presented. Each process is scheduled in stages: from the construction of drawings-patterns to the processing technology for the nodes of the entire product. Schemes, drawings and descriptions of models of women's and children's clothing are given. For a wide range of readers.

Deviantology 2nd ed., Trans. and add. Academic Baccalaureate Textbook and Workshop

The textbook sets out the theoretical foundations for the course "Deviantology".The subject, object, specificity of deviant behavior, structure and types of behavioral deviations, as well as various types of deviations: ethnocultural, children's, adolescent, adult, gender and professional are considered.

The fundamentals of psychological assistance for deviations are given. The main material is supplemented with diagnostic tests used to identify and correct deviations. The educational material is clearly systematized, reflects both traditional and modern approaches to the study of the subject, written in an understandable form.

The most effective natural antibiotics. The best recipes for unconventional treatment of inflammatory diseases

In this book, we offer our readers ways to combat various types of inflammatory processes using the so-called natural antibiotics. These are medicinal herbs, fruits of the earth, mumiyo, propolis, bee bread, "gold" and "silver" water, "blue iodine" and other means of alternative medicine.

Subject to the dosages and rules for the use of collections of herbs, infusions and decoctions, with careful attention to your body, with the right combination of all methods of treatment, without a doubt, natural antibiotics become indispensable helpers in the cure of many diseases.

Evolution of Europe's weapons. From Vikings to Napoleonic Wars

The book by renowned scientist Jack Coggins provides a detailed overview of the evolution of Europe's weapons. The study includes the history of the development of weapons, uniforms and the classification of military ranks characteristic of the leading world powers. The use of various types of weapons is considered on the example of combat among the Vikings, Spaniards, British, Swedes and French.

The reader is faced with a holistic picture of the development of military affairs in Europe, an important stage in which was the emergence of firearms.

Fundamentals of Optoelectronics and Laser Technology. English language study guide for technical universities

The textbook is written in accordance with the program in foreign languages ​​for non-linguistic universities and is designed for students studying in the specialty "Optical and Optoelectronic Systems". It can also be used in teaching a foreign language in the specialty "Electronic devices".

This textbook aims to teach vocabulary, various types of reading special literature, develop oral speech skills with a professional bias, includes text-samples of dialogical speech. The topics of the texts are determined by the requirements of the curriculum.

It is assumed that the work on this manual will prepare students for the translation of original literature on the main sections of optoelectronics. For students, graduate students and teachers of technical universities.

Documentation support for management + tests in ebs 2nd ed., Trans. and add. Tutorial and workshop for

After reading this tutorial, you will get acquainted in detail with the organization of work with management documents in accordance with the national standard GOST ISO 15489-1-2007 "Document Management", as well as get an idea of ​​the modern concept of document management.

In addition, the textbook describes the rules for the design of various types of documents, methods and methods of operational work with documents, their current storage, the basics of working with correspondence. Close attention is paid to computer systems and technologies of documentation support for management.

The special advantage of the textbook is that it contains not only the usual practical tasks, but also tests located in the Electronic Library System "Yurayt" (biblio-online. Ru).

Dictionary of the language of A.S. Griboyedov. Volume 1. A-Z

"Dictionary of the language of A. S. Griboyedov" is the first complete lexicographic description of the language of the great Russian writer. The dictionary includes more than 12 thousand dictionary entries that cover all words found in all published texts of Griboyedov.

The dictionary was created on the basis of a fundamentally new methodology for preparing dictionaries for the writer's language, which is based on an electronic corpus of philologically marked texts. The dictionary contains an alphabetic-frequency concordance to the texts of Griboyedov and a number of indexes (alphabetic, frequency, reverse, grammatical).

A dictionary entry includes a lexeme (heading word), its grammatical features, total frequency, and a list of all word usage. For each word usage, the grammatical form, expanded context and address in the text corpus are indicated.

Griboyedov's Dictionary of Language is aimed at all philologists who study Griboyedov's work, Russian literature and the history of the Russian literary language. The dictionary is unique in terms of the completeness of coverage and detailed analysis of lexical material, which makes it possible to use it to solve a wide range of philological problems: studying the peculiarities of the style of a particular author or period, comparing the language of different types of works, studying the use of individual words or grammatical forms in the history of the Russian language, etc.

Technogenic systems and environmental risk. Academic Baccalaureate Textbook

In the textbook, the author focuses more not on the protective activity of a person, but on the creation of a high-quality technosphere by him. The textbook examines the theoretical foundations of the doctrine of human and environmental protection activities, describes the modern world of dangers (natural, anthropogenic, technogenic, etc.)

) and problems of technosphere safety. The issues of protecting man and nature from various types of dangers are disclosed in detail. Monitoring and control of hazards on a global scale and in more detail within the Russian Federation and its individual territories, as well as state management of human life safety and environmental protection are considered.

Analysis and assessment of risks in business 2nd ed., Trans. and add. Academic baccalaureate textbook and workshop

The textbook examines the theory and practice of assessing various types of risks at a high scientific and methodological level. A detailed analysis of investment, financial, environmental, industrial risks and country risk is presented, models and methods for assessing each of the risks are presented.

The publication is illustrated with examples from Russian practice. As a result of the training, students will know the concept of risk and the classification of risks, their place and role in economic activity, methods of assessing risk and damage incurred, the main ways to minimize risk.

The publication contains control questions and assignments, tests, as well as tasks that will help students better assimilate theoretical material.

The brochure covers various types of massage, indications and contraindications for each of them. Recommendations and examples of non-traditional types of self-massage and massage, for example, with spoons, are given. Describes the basic oils, rubbing, creams used in massage.

For a wide range of readers.

Are we smart enough to judge the intelligence of animals?

For most of the past century, science has been overly cautious and skeptical of animal intelligence. Animal behavior researchers either did not think about their intelligence, or rejected the very concept. The majority avoided this topic.

But times are changing. Less than a week later, there are new reports of the complexity of cognitive processes in animals, often accompanied by videos on the Internet as evidence. What methods of communication do animals practice and do they have a semblance of speech? Can animals recognize themselves in a mirror? Do animals have friendship and affection? Are they waging wars and peace negotiations? In the book, readers will learn the answers to these questions, as well as, for example, that rats can regret their decisions, ravens make tools, octopuses recognize human faces, and special neurons allow monkeys to learn from each other's mistakes.

Scientists talk openly about the culture of animals, their ability to empathize and friendship. Forbidden topics no longer exist, including in the field of reason, which was previously considered the exclusive belonging of a person.The author tells about the history of ethology, about violent disputes with behaviorists, and most importantly, about the enormous experimental work and observations of the natural behavior of animals.

Analyzing the ways of formation of thought processes in the course of the evolutionary history of various species, Frans de Waal convincingly shows that man in this series is only one of many thinking creatures.

Reading and translation. Theory and practice for IT professionals. IT Reading & Translating

The purpose of the manual is to develop students' basic skills and techniques for reading and translating original professionally oriented texts in the specialty, as well as developing skills and techniques for various types of reading using basic skills and techniques for translating professionally oriented authentic texts.

The manual consists of two parts, including theoretical and practical material, illustrative examples and training exercises. For students studying in areas 230700. 68 "Applied Informatics", 080500. 68 "Business Informatics".

Analysis of musical works 2nd ed., Trans. and add. Textbook for universities

The manual contains research and teaching materials related to the theory of musical analysis, the theory of musical form, historical aspects of the interpretation of various types of forms in musical art. The book sets out the key positions of the theory and history of music, knowledge of which will prove to be an indispensable foundation in the work of future musicians and music teachers.


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Texture in landscape design Texture is an important part of a complete picture in a garden. We are talking about all the objects on the site, from the house and the veranda to the lawn and the ground. Texture is often associated with the properties of an item. So, for example, a stone can be transformed under a stream of water in a pond or waterfall, whereas in a dry place it will be completely inconspicuous. You can play with the textures of objects in different ways, experimenting with the design of the garden, the cladding of buildings.

Texture in landscape design

Texture in landscape design

Texture Texture is the nature of the surface of objects. Landscape art takes into account the texture of vegetation - trees, shrubs, the surface of the lawn and flower beds, as well as the texture of rocks - rocks, etc.

The value of various textures in garden landscaping Contrast texture complements and emphasizes all the best in the elements of landscape design. The planning and use of texture in landscaping depends on two factors: Growing plants Building materials. An example of combining different textures in landscape design

Sources of texture in plants Sources of texture in plants are lawns, soil type, trees with their bark, bushes, flowers and foliage. You can create a garden where there will be no flowers at all, but rely only on the beauty of the texture of the leafy ornament. Don't forget about the usefulness of texture for your garden in winter. It is during this period, among snow, ice and icicles, that the texture of the bark and branches will focus on itself. Texture (i.e., an image that reproduces the visual properties of any surfaces or objects) can be selected, guided by places that are dear to your heart. If you lived in a coniferous area as a child, plant plants with small, thin leaves, perhaps something with needles. And planting cacti or succulents in the summer (i.e. plants with special tissues for water storage) will give your garden a resemblance to a desert and other exotic landscapes.

Sources of texture among building materials The main sources of texture among inanimate nature are stones, boards, bricks, pebbles, metal, concrete, asphalt, plaster. Like color, texture can be used to manipulate space.A variety of textures can give the roofing felts the effect of reducing space, or, on the contrary, expand it. Tip: planting plants with a noisy texture (for example, lilac) in the background and plants with a soft graceful texture (for example, a holly tree or it is also called holly) - in the near, will lead to a decrease in space. And a small space will look more cozy, secluded. If we plant plants with such textures the other way around (in the background with a graceful, in the close - with a rough texture), we get the opposite effect - the space will increase. Of course, texture is not the only parameter with which you can control both the appearance and the effect of the design of the backyard area. These parameters include color in landscape design. Holly or holly

Correlation of forms by texture Texture in landscape design is the properties of the surface of objects. For landscape design, we take into account the texture of paving materials for fences and stairs, as well as plants - surfaces of flower beds and lawns, shrubs and trees. If we talk about trees and shrubs, first of all, the texture is considered as an integral part that determines the structure of the crown (together with the structure and silhouette). There are such types as: fine texture, birch or willow, medium texture, linden or elm, and rough it is beech or oak. The texture of the crown is the structure of the surface of a tree or bush, which is set by the size and nature of the shape of the leaves and also by their location. Stone texture - for paths and fences, it is important to choose the right texture that matches the overall composition of the garden.

Natural stone in landscape design Not only plants, reservoirs, fountains, but natural stone are the most important component for creating landscape compositions. The texture of the stone allows it to be combined with any vegetation and water bodies. Natural stone makes the garden unique and mysterious. By decorating a personal plot with compositions with natural stone, you can make the territory individual. In addition, the stone is able to combine the architecture of existing buildings with the natural landscape, making the composition complete and harmonious. All attention can be focused on the stone, or you can assign it a secondary role that can change both the appearance of the site and its style. Sometimes one large, unusual stone with an interesting texture is enough to visually make the site unique. The advantage of natural stone also lies in the fact that it is suitable for landscape design, regardless of its style. It can be used for alpine slides, paths can be laid out with stone, or used as decoration for ponds, fountains, artificial reservoirs and waterfalls. Artificial water objects are popular in landscape design. They look most harmonious in combination with a stone. Natural stone can be of various textures, shades, sizes, which allows you to decorate reservoirs both from the inside and outside. For example, pebbles are ideal for a pond, with which you can lay out the bottom, and larger stones will help to decorate the pond around the edges. In order for the stone to look as natural in the reservoir as in nature, it can be covered with moss. When choosing a natural stone for a reservoir, you need to remember that sandstone and limestone are destroyed by the action of water, so it is better not to use stones consisting of them. The use of stone in landscape design is not limited by anything other than imagination. The most important thing is to observe the measure. One stone can transform a garden, but their excessive accumulation can create a feeling of clutter.

Lawns in landscaping Lawns are considered an integral part of any space landscaping project.This green coating, being a neutral background, allows you to visually expand the existing territory and give the site a stylistic completeness. As a rule, the lawn looks like a site near the house or in the garden, sown with low-growing and creeping plant varieties. Many people associate the emergence of this element of landscape design with the progress and development of modern technologies, however, the history of the appearance of the first lawns should be sought in the mists of time. Patio

Lawns in landscape design Original paths Square lawn

Lawns in landscape design Chess lawn interior Sunny lawn

Lawns in landscape design Circular lawn Original green lawn

Landscaping lawns Scenic lawn Garden lawn

Lawn Lawn This direction of landscape design performs not only a decorative function. Thanks to the lawn, a wonderful place for children to play and family recreation appears in the yard. The grass cover contributes to the regulation of the microclimate in the personal plot - the temperature difference between the air layer and the surface of the earth becomes not so sharp. In addition, the grass has phytoncidal (killing or suppressing the growth and development of bacteria) and filtration properties, which helps to cleanse the air space from the accumulation of dust, gas impurities and heavy metals. For example, a 1 hectare lawn can absorb up to 60 tons of dust. The structure of the soil improves, more moisture is retained in it. Turf coverings dampen noise and reduce surface vibration. In addition, the lawn grass generates oxygen saturated with negative ions, which has a beneficial effect on the well-being of people living nearby. A place for family rest

Lawns in landscape design Amazing country house Decorative pond in the garden

Lawns in landscape design Bright lawn in front of the house Country residence

Lawns in landscape design Cozy country house Courtyard interior

Lawns in landscape design Lawn of unusual shape Unique garden lawn

Lawns in landscape design Unusual type of lawn Picturesque lawn in the garden

Landscaped lawns Stunningly beautiful lawn Mediterranean style courtyard

Lawns in landscape design Lawn behind a glass fence Insanely beautiful courtyard interior

Dominant garden The dominant garden is most often a residential building. In rare cases, this is a reservoir, ornamental plants, planting of fruit trees. You can focus on the dominant elements with the help of bright and rich plantings. To draw attention to the house, beautiful festive flower beds are arranged near its doorstep, the veranda is decorated with flowering plants or vines, and containers with evergreen conifers are displayed at the entrance. Any large area allocated for a certain element can become the dominant feature. So, for example, a well-planned vegetable garden without additional items can become the central composition of the garden, where dominant plants will stand out among others with a bright and rich color and shape. A garden is a great way to make a bright accent on your site.

DIY landscape design: step by step towards the main goal So, how do you make a really beautiful and functional landscape design with your own hands? There is a certain work algorithm, following which you can achieve the desired result. You always need to start with design. There is nothing complicated in the design itself. A plot with all buildings, plants and additional elements is applied to a sheet on a scale - this will be a garden plan. The prepared plan is amended according to the developed idea of ​​landscape design. There are also some nuances here. It is important to determine the cardinal points on the site in order to have a clear idea of ​​where to plant which plants.

Preparatory stage When the landscape design project is prepared, you can proceed to the next stage - research and preparation of the territory. Research means the analysis of the soil for the content of nutrients, groundwater. If the land belongs to the category of "poor", then a mandatory measure should be its fertilization with mineral and organic substances, with the delivery of a fertile layer of soil. The preparatory work includes cleaning the territory (construction waste, driftwood, weeds), leveling the soil, creating a drainage layer in the case of swampy areas, strengthening retaining walls on areas with slopes, earthworks.

Arrangement of the site with decorations When the site is fully prepared, you can proceed to a new stage - the construction of architectural structures, the arrangement of reservoirs, fountains, the laying of irrigation and lighting systems. Gazebos, statues, decorative ponds - all this can be done with your own hands or ordered ready-made in specialized stores. The elements should be chosen, taking into account the peculiarities of the chosen style of landscape design. Plants form a single harmonious picture. An important point is decorative lighting. Properly planned lighting at night will transform the garden into a fairytale world. When equipping the territory with decorations, do not forget to adhere to a single style.

Landscaping The final stage is landscaping of the territory. It is important to adhere to the dendrological plan, choosing the plants that are most suitable for planting in the climate of the region where the site is located. You should not try to plant all the plants at once, it is better to act slowly, moving from one zone to another on the site. It is equally important to choose the right places on the site for different varieties of plants. So, for example, near water sources it is better to plant moisture-loving plants, in the shade of trees and buildings - shade-loving ones, and in open areas - resistant to sunlight. At the same stage, vertical gardening is carried out using ornamental trees, shrubs, climbing plants.


How to turn a summer cottage into a chic vacation spot

Shish kebabs are fried in the summer garden, books are read in a flowering gazebo, children run along the cobbled paths, friends sunbathe next to the pool, and in the evening tea parties are held in the light of lanterns. And you will still have time to prepare the cottage for the holiday season if you use the tips from this post.

On an ordinary six hundred square meters, you can set up a real recreation park, and you can do everything yourself, if you wish. It's just that the dacha is distinguished from the magic garden by the details, high-quality accessories and an attentive attitude to everything that is on the site. About how to implement non-standard ideas and completely change the appearance of the dacha, we asked Olga Sukhoplyueva, the manager for purchasing seasonal goods of the OBI hypermarket chain for repair and dacha.

1. Garden paths

A dacha is a garden bed. A suburban area is a lawn, flower beds and paths.

How to make garden paths?

The main rule is to slow down. A good gardener makes paths where people walk, not where he wants to. Until guests and vacationers outline the paths, do not decorate the flower beds and paths, otherwise you will be wasting your time and energy.

Areas that have been waiting for a visit for years are overgrown with grass, so bring a lawn mower if you haven't been in the garden for a long time.

To make it easier for you to decide on the shapes of the tracks, study the brief characteristics of the materials in the table.

Coating typeprosMinusesHow to make
GravelFast, cheapUncomfortableDig a ditch about 10 cm deep, cover with gravel
ConcreteCheap, for a long timeLongDig ditches, lay wooden formwork and secure it with pegs. Cover the base with a layer of sand. Lay the reinforcement mesh, fill with mortar
Tile, natural stoneBeautiful, durableDifficult, expensiveDig a recess (at least 20 cm), fill in layers of sand and rubble, lay geotextiles between them. Lay a layer of cement screed (3-4 cm). Lay the tiles
WoodBeautiful, environmentally friendlyLongTreat each piece with a means of protection against moisture and decay, lay on a prepared base (gravel or sand). For additional protection, the soil can be laid out with geotextiles or polyethylene
Sawdust, barkCheap, fastMaterial scatters over the siteDig a ditch and cover with bark or sawdust
Plastic modulesCheap, convenient, fastShort-livedBuy plastic modules and lay them on the site

2. Green roof

If it still pulls something to plant in the country, plant a roof.

Organizations that deal with green roofs describe the advantages of such a solution: durability, sound insulation, and so on. Agree, the main thing in such a roof is still beauty. This is a feature that instantly turns a dacha into an elite home. Well, who refuses to go to barbecue in a house under a moss roof?

A simple option is to stretch the climbing net on the roof. Of course, this is a completely different solution and it can be fully appreciated only at the end of the summer, but it is still impressive.

"Classic" green roofing takes a long time and is quite expensive. But what a result!

  1. Preparing the base. These are the structures of the roof itself: lathing, slabs and floors. Since a green roof is always multi-layered and heavy, you cannot save on strength. If the roof is flat, create a slight slope to allow moisture to drain off.
  2. We carry out hydro and thermal insulation works. A layer of waterproofing materials is applied to the base. Thermal insulation is needed if it is not yet available from the attic. Choose a durable polymer membrane with an anti-root layer to protect the insulation from overgrown plants, or add a layer of extra protection.
  3. Drainage. It is needed to drain excess water, but at the same time maintain the vital activity of plants. Any special material is used.
  4. Filtration. Lay a layer of geotextile to allow water to enter the drainage system without soil.
  5. Priming. Lay a geogrid on which to lay the nutrient medium for plants, fill it with soil. Choose soil depending on what you want to plant.
  6. Planting plants. For example, planting moss is pretty easy. You need to take the moss (if you collect it yourself, then take it from the soil, the moss from the tree will not grow on earthen soil), dry it for two days, grind and mix with kefir. Apply this composition to the roof with a brush or hands. After six weeks, it will be clear if the plants have taken root.

If you decide on independent work, first try your hand at a small roof.


Section 7. Agrotechnics of agricultural production (6 hours)

Topic 40. Sowing quality of seeds (1 hour)

Seeds. Sowing quality. The purity of the seeds. Seed germination. Germination energy. Seed mass. Sowing suitability.

Basic concepts of the topic: seeds, sowing quality, purity of seeds, germination of seeds, germination energy, weight of 1000 seeds, sowing suitability.

Topic 41. Preparing seeds for sowing (1 hour)

Soaking. Sparging. Air heat treatment. Germination. Hardening. Etching. Pelleting.

Basic concepts of the topic: Soaking, bubbling, air-heat treatment, germination, hardening, pickling, pelleting.

Topic 42. Sowing and planting of cultivated plants (1 hour)

Sowing (planting) dates. Seeding depth. Sowing (planting) methods. Sowing rate of seeds.

Basic concepts of the topic: sowing, planting, sowing methods: spread, row, ordinary row, tape, narrow-row, wide-row, dotted, square-nest seeding rate.

Topic 43. Technology of caring for cultivated plants (1 hour)

Rolling. Harrowing. Mulching. Thinning. Bouquet. Inter-row processing. Top dressing. Irrigation. Integrated protection. Pruning.

Basic concepts of the topic: packing, harrowing, mulching, thinning, bunching, inter-row cultivation, top dressing, irrigation, integrated protection, pruning.

Topic 44. Technology for obtaining varietal seeds (1 hour)

Fundamentals of seed production. Organization of the seed production system. Agricultural technology of seed production.

Basic concepts of the topic: Seed growing, selection, cultivar, local and selective, hybrid, cultivar renewal, cultivar seeds, elite seeds, reproduction, varietal cleaning, selection of mother plants.

Topic 45. Tuber crops (1 hour)

Group characteristics. Biological features. Varieties. Predecessors. Agrotechnology. Pests and diseases.

Basic concepts of the topic: tubers: potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke.

Project defense (2 hours)

Calendar-thematic planning 5th grade.

Theoretical knowledge, learning objectives, interdisciplinary knowledge, skills and abilities.


Watch the video: Ideas to Design a Woodland Garden. Garden Style 514